Flour Description Flavours Baking Properties
Strong white flour (hard wheat) Made from hard common wheat, meaning higher protein that ‘plain’ flour. Typically this is around 11-12.5% protein in the UK. - -
Very strong white flour Made from harder wheat, typically 13%+ in the UK. - A higher gluten content than softer wheats can result in tougher doughs.
Emmer Ancient grain made from hard durum wheat, ~12% protein. Often used for pasta, sold as 00 (low extraction) flour. Earthy flavour, creamy in texture. Delicate gluten, but higher protein than common wheat.
Einkorn Oldest ancient grain, softer member of the wheat family. ~11% protein. Grassy and nutty. Delicate gluten structure, sticky when hydrated and quick to ferment.
Spelt Ancient grain, heirloom of wheat, ~14% protein. Easy to digest and nutritional, more vitamins than other flours. Milky, honey flavours Not great for high hydrations and long rising times (acid breaks down the gluten quickly)
Kamut (Khorasan) A type of durum wheat, used by the Egyptians. ~15% protein. Buttery and sweet Very high in protein
Semolina The flour of modern, common durum wheat, very common in pasta and pizza Buttery and sweet -
Barley Barley is a grain that is high in fibre and low in protein - ~8%. Subtle earthy flavours, sweet when roasted Not great for bread on its own due to low protein, could be made into a porridge and added to a dough.
Rye Rye is a blue/gray grain that has a vegetable gum in it that mimics gluten, it is very high in fibre and contains around 8% protein. Often used in scandinavian areas for dense breads. Tangy and grassy Slick, sticky and able to bind water.
Buckwheat Buckwheat is neither a wheat nor grain, it is a pseudo-cereal, related to rhubarb and sorrel! It has high levels of starch and oil, protein of around 11% and no gluten. Nutty -
Beremeal And ancient kind of barley that is grown in Orkney. Earthy, nutty -